Chapter 5 - form 5 : Motion
Pascal's Law and Hydraulic Brake System
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Pascal's law or Pascal's principle states that "pressure exerted anywhere in a confined fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid."
The hydraulic brake is an arrangement of braking mechanism which uses brake fluid, typically containing ethylene glycol, to transfer pressure from the controlling unit, which is usually near the operator of the vehicle, to the actual brake mechanism, which is usually at or near the wheel of the vehicle.
The most common arrangement of hydraulic brakes for passenger vehicles, motorcycles, scooters, and mopeds, consists of the following:
•A brake pedal or lever
•A pushrod, also called an actuating rod
•A master cylinder assembly containing:
A piston assembly made up of:
Either one or two pistons
-A return spring
- A series of gaskets/ O-rings
- A fluid reservoir
- Reinforced hydraulic lines
-A brake caliper assembly usually containing:
oOne or two hollow aluminum or chrome-plated steel pistons called caliper pistons
oA set of thermally conductive brake pads
-A rotor (also called a brake disc) or a drum attached to a wheel
A glycol-ether based brake fluid usually fills the system (other fluids may also be used) and manages the transfer of force/ energy between the brake lever and the wheel.
At one time, passenger vehicles commonly employed disc brakes on the front wheels and drum brakes on the rear wheels. However, because disc brakes have been shown a better stopping performance and are therefore generally safer and more effective than drum brakes, four-wheel disc brakes have become increasingly popular, replacing drums on all but the most basic vehicles. Many two-wheel vehicles designs, however, continue to employ a drum brake for the rear wheel
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